Bahrain holds the remnants of Dilmun, one of the many Ancient Civilizations that I saw during my travels.

From the Dilmun entry in Wikipedia:

Dilmun was an ancient Semitic-speaking polity in Arabia mentioned from the 3rd millennium BCE onwards. Based on textual evidence, it was located in the Persian Gulf, on a trade route between Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley Civilisation, close to the sea and to artesian springs. A number of scholars have suggested that Dilmun originally designated the eastern province of Saudi Arabia, notably linked with the major Dilmunite settlements of Umm an-Nussi and Umm ar-Ramadh in the interior and Tarout on the coast. Dilmun encompassed Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar and the eastern portion regions of Saudi Arabia. This area is certainly what is meant by references to "Dilmun" among the lands conquered by King Sargon of Akkad and his descendants.

The great commercial and trading connections between Mesopotamia and Dilmun were strong and profound to the point where Dilmun was a central figure to the Sumerian creation myth. Dilmun was described in the saga of Enki and Ninhursag as pre-existing in paradisiacal state, where predators don't kill, pain and diseases are absent, and people don't get old.

Dilmun was an important trading center. At the height of its power, it controlled the Persian Gulf trading routes. According to some modern theories, the Sumerians regarded Dilmun as a sacred place, but that is never stated in any known ancient text. Dilmun was mentioned by the Mesopotamians as a trade partner, a source of copper, and a trade entrepôt.

The Sumerian tale of the garden paradise of Dilmun may have been an inspiration for the Garden of Eden story.

All pictures are © Dr. Günther Eichhorn, unless otherwise noted.

Qal'at al-Bahrain

From the Qal'at al-Bahrain entry in Wikipedia:

The Qal'at al-Bahrain, also known as the Bahrain Fort or Portuguese Fort, is an archaeological site located in Bahrain, on the Arabian Peninsula. Archaeological excavations carried out since 1954 have unearthed antiquities from an artificial mound of 12 m (39 ft) height containing seven stratified layers, created by various occupants from 2300 BCE up to the 18th century, including Kassites, Greeks, Portuguese and Persians. It was once the capital of the Dilmun civilization.

Qal'at al-Bahrain – Ancient Harbour and Capital of Dilmun is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

View Qal'at Al-bahrain Bahrain
View of Qal'at al-Bahrain (Bahrain Fort). (616k)
View Qal'at Al-bahrain
View of Qal'at al-Bahrain. (880k)
View Qal'at Al-bahrain
View of Qal'at al-Bahrain. (800k)
View Qal'at Al-bahrain
View of Qal'at al-Bahrain. (844k)
View Qal'at Al-bahrain Manama
View of Qal'at al-Bahrain with Manama in the background. (766k)
Qal'at Al-bahrain
On Qal'at al-Bahrain. (795k)
Qal'at Al-bahrain
In Qal'at al-Bahrain. (806k)
Qal'at Al-bahrain
In Qal'at al-Bahrain. (871k)
Remnants Dilumn Period
Remnants from the Dilumn period. (854k)
Remnants Dilumn Period
Remnants from the Dilumn period. (858k)
Remnants Dilumn Period
Remnants from the Dilumn period. (841k)
Remnants Dilumn Period Oldest
Remnants from the Dilumn period. These were the oldest remnants, close to 4000 years old. (749k)

A'Ali Burial Mounds

From the Dilmun Burial Mounds entry in Wikipedia:

The Dilmun Burial Mounds are a number of necropolis areas on the main island of Bahrain dating back to the Dilmun, the Umm al-Nar culture, and later eras. Known since ancient times as an island with a very large number of burials, the (originally) quite a number of square kilometers of mounds were said to be one of the largest cemeteries in the ancient world. The cemeteries are concentrated in the north of the island, on the hard stony areas slightly above the arable farming soils – the south of the island is mainly sandy and desert-like. Recent studies have shown that the estimated/approximately 350,000 ancient grave mounds could have been solely produced by the local population over a number of thousands of years. The graves are not all of the same era, or of exactly the same styles, and can vary considerably in size in different areas of the moundfield. Research, under the auspices of the Bahrain National Museum (with the Bahrain Historical and Archaeological Society taking a keen interest), is still continuing, to establish a firm timeline for all these variations and continuations, as well as considering the implications for the society or societies that produced them.

The Dilmun Burial Mounds are a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2019.

Field Hundreds Small Burial
Field with hundreds of small burial mounds. They are up to 4000 years old. (949k)
Royal Burial Mound Early
Royal Burial Mound, from the early Dilmun period, 2200 BCE - 1750 BCE. (746k)
Royal Burial Mound
Royal Burial Mound. (719k)
Royal Burial Mound
Royal Burial Mound. (845k)
Unexcavated Royal Burial Mount
Unexcavated Royal Burial Mount. (799k)
Largest Royal Burial Mounds
One of the largest Royal Burial Mounds, about 12 m (39 ft) high. It is in the middle of the town A'Ali. (568k)
Royal Burial Mounds Destroyed
Many of the Royal Burial Mounds were destroyed before they were protected. (686k)

This page contains 19 pictures

Main page for البحرين (Bahrain)

Page last updated on Fri Dec 2 12:44:23 2022 (Mountain Standard Time)

Page last updated on Wed Mar 22 16:17:18 2023 (Mountain Standard Time)

Dilmun Civilization on

© Dr. Günther Eichhorn
Email Guenther Eichhorn

*Dr. Günther Eichhorn Travel Website
*Soaring website